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  1. #141

    ""......... . . (1974) 106 Candida 30,8% (100 1 ), - 21,9% ( 5000 1 ),""

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  2. #142

    ,
    22.06.2015
    39
    561

    andrey108

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  3. #143

    andrey108
    ""......... . . (1974) 106 Candida 30,8% (100 1 ), - 21,9% ( 5000 1 ),""

    , , 12 . ...
    http://rnas.asj-oa.am/574/1/62.pdf
    elenms, 04.09.2015 12:07
       

  4. #144

    CANDIDA SPP.
    .., .., .., .., . .
    ( 0) | PDF (147 K) | . 45-46
    . Candida . , , Candida-. , . , Candida spp. , . - , /, . , .
    - Candida , .



    Candida spp., , : Candida albicans (24 ), Candida glabrata (4), Candida krusei (2). , , : Candida guillermondii (5), Candida tropicalis (3), Candida maltosa (1), Rhodotorula rubra (1). , . (15 60 ).

    , : - , ; - Candida spp. ; - Candida spp. .

    Candida spp. , .

    .

    . 15 50%, 1,5 60 . 15 30%, . , , . Candida spp.

    . 15 Candida spp. . 60 : . , , .

    . Candida spp. 1,5 - 2 , , . 60 .

    Candida. , Candida spp. , , 3 .



    , , . , Candida, , . Candida spp., .
    elenms, 04.09.2015 11:59
       

  5. #145

    : , .
    Nosocomial fungal infections: epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment

    Joshua Perlroth* Bryan Choif & Brad Spellberg*,
    * Division of Infectious Diseases &, ^Department of Medicine, Harbor-University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center and David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, California, USA
    Medical Mycology June 2007, 45, 321-346

    . , , , . Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., Mucorales, Fusarium spp. , Scedosporium spp. , . . , , . , .

    (.. ) . , , , , . , , , .
    , , , . , , Candida . Aspergillus - , . , , Mucorales, Fusarium (Scedosporium) , .
    . , . , .
    , - , . , , , , , .
    , , . , , , , .

    Candida.
    .
    , Candida . , Candida spp. . , Candida spp. , , Entericoccus, Staphylococcus epidermalis Staphylococcus aureus .

    .
    Candida-. : . Candida , (~80%), , (, , , ..) / . , , 65-90% . , ~2,500 22- . , , .
    Candida . : (1) Candida ; (2) (.., ) ; (3) ; (4) . , , Candida . , .
    , , Candida . , , 3 5 , 2 .
    , , , , , . Candida - , . .
    , , . . , , . , .
    . - . , , , , , , . - .

    .
    1980, Candida albicans. , Candida albicans in vitro , Candida albicans Candida. 1990 -albicans Candida, . (. ).
    Candida albicans 50% , Candida glabrata , 15-25% ( 2). , , Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata . Candida tropicalis 10-20% . , . Candida krusei > 10% .
    -albicans Candida. , Cabdida albicans , Candida glabrata Candida krusei. . Cabdida glabrata Candida krusei Candida albicans, , , Candida glabrata, . , , Candida glabrata, , Candida albicans. , Candida albicans .
    , , Candida glabrata, , Candida glabrata . - (MIC > 16 /) Candida glabrata 20-75%. : MIC 16-32 / , MIC > 64, in vivo . , , ( MIC AUC/MIC) , (MIC AUC/MIC), . Candida krusei , , , Candida krusei.
    - Candida, , , , , , .
    , , . Candida , Candida, , . , , Candida , , , . , Candida , 90% . , , Candida albicans , .

    .
    . , 40%, 50% , . , Candida, , 50%, , , , Pseudomonas aeruginosa. , , , - , , .
    , , . , , , 24 . , 12 . 5%.
    - , . , , . , , , . . (, , , .), .
    . , , , , . , . , , . , (. ) . , , , , , 3 (.., =, = , = ). , " " , - .
    Candida glabrata, , , , , , , , , . , - , Candida glabrata Candida krusei, 30 . , .
    , , , . .
    , , , , , , - . . , - Candida glabrata Candida krusei. , (.., 0.7-1 // , 5-10 / . , Candida glabrata, , , Candida glabrata Candida krusei.
    , , , (, , ). , , , . , - . , . , , Candida parapsilosis, (). , . , Candida parapsilosis, , . , , , , Candida parapsilosis. .

    .
    . , , , , . . . - , . (=0,08), . , .
    , ? , APACHE II. APACHE II , APACHE II , . , - . . . , , , , .
    , , . , , , , .

    Aspergillus.
    .
    Candida, Aspergillus . , , , , , Candida, Aspergillus ( , , , ..). ( , , ); , ; , , .
    Aspergillus 5 100000 . 4 . , . 45 80%. (). , 95%.

    .
    Aspergillus spp. - , , . . Aspergillus . . Aspergillus, , . , , . . , 3,18/1000 9,88/1000 . ( , , , ) 2,91/1000.
    , Aspergillus . , HEPA- . HEPA- .

    .
    , Aspergillus, , . A. fumigatus , , A. flavus A. niger . , . , A. terreus - ,- . , A. terreus . , A. terreus, , (55,8 73,4%) 12 , . 1995 2001 . , A. terreus A. fumigatus (39% 28%).

    .
    , ( ), (- , ), - ( () (HAART)). . , , . 342 , , CD4 50 /, , .
    , , , . , . . , , , " ". , et al. , 5% 2 , 9% 6 10% 12 . 5 11,4%. , , HLA- . , " " , .

    .
    , . Fusarium ( ), Aspergillus . , , Aspergillus , , , . , , , . , Yu . , 1 17 \ , Aspergillus , , 16 . , , Aspergillus , . 23 , 30% . , Aspergillus , .
    , . , (RTC)/ (MSG). / , . ( ) , , .
    Aspergillus , , . . . Mennink-Kersten . , . , , , , . , , 0,73 (95% CI, 0,61-1,0), 0,81 (95% CI, 0.76-0.87) . 0,69 (95% CI, 0,59-0,79), 0,89 (95% CI, 0,84-0,94), , . , , , . , , , Bifidobacterium, , . .
    , , β-, . . , . , 84 100%, 2 9 . . .
    , (). . . " (), - ,- , . . , Horger . " " 30,2%, 100% . " " . , " " , 80-90% " " . 95-100% " " , . " " 88-96% 17-19% .
    . , , .

    .
    - Herbrecht . . 400 , . . , . ( 12 ), , 12 (70,8 . 57,9%, P=0.02). , . ( 5).
    49,7%, 20,8%. (. ).
    aspergillus , . (ABCD), - , . ABCD , , , , .
    , , , , . , 22 63% 37 67%.
    , . , . , , .
    . in vitro . , , .
    , , , .

    .
    , . , , in vitro . , , , .
    , . 47 , , . . , 3 ( 0,42; = 0.048). ( = 0,28, = 0.011).
    . . , . 90- (67,5 51%, = 0.117). . , A. fumigatus ( = 0,019) ( = 0,022). . . , .
    , , , . : (1) , , ; (2) ; (3) . , , . , , , , , . ( ) . , , . , , .
    . , , 20% . , , . , , 20% .
    , . , , , , ? , , , , , , .

    .
    . , \ . , , , Candida spergillus spp. 1,7 1.000.000 , 500 . 1 5 10.000 , 10-50 , , Candida Aspergillus.
    . , , . , , , 2-3%. , (. ).


    Mucorales, 6 , . , Mucoraceae, , . Mucoraceae, Rhizopus oryzae (Rhizopus arrhizus). Mucoraceae, , Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis, Absidia corymbifera, Apophysomyces elegans, Mucor Rhizomucor pusillus. , Cunninghamella spp. ( Cunninghamellaceae). 4 , .

    .
    , , , , (. ). . , Fred Hutchinson, . 1985-1989 1995-1999 . Kontoyianis et al. , . , , , . , , 90 .
    ( - ), " " . . , , , .
    , . , , . - .
    , , , . , . , , , . . , , .
    - - , , . . , , , .


    , , . , . , , , . . , Aspergillus, Fusarium Scedosporium Mucorales. , . . , , , , .
    , , , . , (, ) , .
    , . , , , , ( ). , . , , , . , 25 , , , , 8- . 20- 5- , . .


    : , ( ), . , , . , , . , , , . . . , .
    , , . , a, , 1-1.5 //, . , , .
    , , . . , , , , , . , , R. ryzae, (15 //) , (1 //), . , (5, 20, 30 //) R. ryzae . , , , 5- , . , , , 5 . 120 , , 67% 39% , (P=0.02, x2). .
    , , . , - , , . , 5-10 // (, 10-15 //) .
    in vitro Mucorales. , FDA in vitro . . 60% , . , , , . , . 15%. , , , , .
    in vitro . , , R. oryzae , , R. oryzae. , , R. oryzae, (1 //) (5 //) . , ( 50% 0% , ). , , , . .

    .
    , . , , . , in vitro, in vivo. .
    . , 49 70% , 14% . , , 11 17 (65%) , , , 0 7 (0%) , . . , , , , . , .

    .
    .
    , , Aspergillus, . , , ~ 9- , , Aspergillus . , 1,4 2% 5-20 1.000 , , .
    , , F. moniliforme, F. solani F.oxysporum. . , . , . Fusarium, .

    .
    (, ), , , . , . , . , , 100 1 . 100 . , 30% 40 , 80% 180 . , ( 30 ), " " (> 30 ). , , .

    .
    , . , 75% . . , , , Aspergillus. , Fusarium >40-75% . , .

    .
    Fusarium in vitro, Aspergillus, . , Fusarium. , . , .
    . , , , . . 259 , , 66%, 100%. 90 79% , 100% , . / .

    , .
    , , Scedosporium iospermum (Pseudallescheria boydii) S. prolificans. S. apiospermum , , , Fusarium. , . , .
    S. piospermum in vitro , , , . , S. prolificans , , . , S. prolificans, . , , . , , S. rolificans.
    , , Acremonium, Paecilomyces, Cladophialophora, Cladosporium, . Scedosporium spp.

    .
    . , , , . , , , .
    , . . . , , , , .

    http://www.rusmedserv.com/mycology/html/labora32.htm
    elenms, 04.09.2015 12:09
       

  6. #146

    .. 18 ..
    23.02.2011
    45
    3,791

    , , , . . (1982) , Candida . , , , .

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  7. #147

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  8. #148

    (+ )
    21.06.2007
    56
    4,082

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  9. #149

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    21.06.2007
    56
    4,082

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  10. #150

    ,
    22.06.2015
    39
    561

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